Pickering Laboratories USA

A. Product Testing Solutions

Artificial Skin Surface Films

Perspiration is on everything we touch with our fingers or that comes into contact with our bodies. Sweat can react with materials and trigger allergies, or it can shorten product service life via corrosion or discoloration. Natural human perspiration has a complex composition that depends on the type of sweat gland, the person’s metabolism and hydration level. Pickering Laboratories’ human mimic artificial perspiration solutions are formulated based on published data for human sweat and provide the closest match to the “real thing” available on the market. These solutions are perfect for testing a variety of consumer products and medical devices as well as for forensics applications and as blanks for medical testing protocols.

1. Artificial Eccrine Perspiration

The Artificial Eccrine Perspiration we offer is a ready-to-use solution and is the closest mimic to true human eccrine sweat. It consists of nineteen amino acids, the seven most abundant minerals, and the four most abundant metabolites at a pH of 4.5. All concentrations closely match experimentally determined values for adult human eccrine sweat.

The stabilized solution is preserved with a fungicide and bactericide and can be stored at room temperature, while the non-stabilized product is stored frozen. Custom formulations at varying pH (2-9) can be made as either the stabilized or non-stabilized solutions.

Artificial Apocrine Perspiration List of Ingredients
Uric Acid Urea
Metabolltes Lactic Acid Ammonia
Minerals Sodium Iron Nitrate
Calcium Copper Sulfate
Magnesium Potassium
Zinc Chloride
Amino Acids L-Glycine L-Histidine L-Serine
L-Alanine L-Isoleucine L-Threonine
L-Arginine L-Leucine L-Tyrosine
L-Asparagine L-Lysine L-Valine
L-Citrulline L-Ornithine
L-Glutamic acid L-Phenylalanine

2. Artificial Sebum

Sebum is an oily secretion produced by sebaceous glands, which spreads over the hair and skin for waterproofing purposes. This solution is formulated according to ASTM designation D4265-14 or D4265-98. It is ready-to-use and provides the reliability, reproducibility and convenience needed for testing. This formulation can be used according to AATCC Standard Test Method 130-2010 for evaluating the efficacy of home laundry products and conditions to remove stains from fabric.

3. Artificial Apocrine Perspiration

Apocrine sweat is secreted by apocrine glands located in the areas of the body with an abundance of hair follicles such as the scalp, armpits and groins. Apocrine sweat is initially sterile and odorless but when acted upon by bacteria it forms odorous compounds. Artificial Apocrine Perspiration was developed to mimic the composition of human apocrine sweat and contains several volatile fatty acids that are responsible for the unpleasant odor associated with it.

The ready-to-use solution is stored in a refrigerator and could be used for testing that requires the presence of malodor. It also could be used to culture bacteria that are commonly present on human skin.

Artificial Apocrine Perspiration List of Ingredients
Metabolltes Urea Citric acid Butyric acid
Ammonia 2-hydroxybutyric acid i-valeric acid
Lactic acid 3- hydroxybutyric acid
Formic acid a-hydroxy-isobutyric acid
Sugars Glucose
Amino Acids Alanine Aspartic acid citrulline
Glutamic acid Glutamine Glycine
Isoleucine Leucine Lysine mono-hydrochloride
Phenylala-nine Proline Serine
Threonine Tryptophan Tyrosine
Valine Creatine

4. Eccrine Perspiration-Sebum Emulsion

Inspired by the ASTM D4265-98 method for staining, the emulsion uses 5% Artificial Sebum in Eccrine Perspiration. Oleic acid is added as an emulsifier. Prepared without dust/dirt for a more universal application, this emulsion mimics non-exercise induced skin surface film (SSFL). As SSFL, it can be used to test any topical use product or the stability of any article that will come in contact with human sweat. This product requires refrigeration to remain in solution and prevent rancidity.


The pH of the solution is an important consideration in product testing, affecting corrosion rate, level of color degradation and leaching of metals and organic components from wearable products. Many procedures require a tight pH range during testing. To accommodate these pH requirements and to improve pH stability over time, Pickering Laboratories is offering buffered versions of industry-specific artificial perspiration formulations. By adding a Phosphate buffer to the original formulation, the pH stability of the solution is greatly improved while its effect on corrosion and color fastness remains unaffected.

1. Buffered DIN 53160, BS EN 1811:2011 Artificial Perspiration


Pickering Laboratories manufactures a variety of artificial saliva formulations designed for product testing and research. Several artificial saliva products follow official testing methods that are globally accepted for testing corrosion or colorfastness of consumer products and dental devices. In addition, we offer a range of formulations based on published scientific data. To increase the stability of some products during storage, several artificial saliva formulations come in two parts that are mixed just before use. Custom formulations to accommodate specific pH or ingredient requirements are also available upon customer request.

  1. Fusayama/Meyer Artificial Saliva For Testing of Products for Corrosion, Colorfastness and Discoloration
  2. Modified Fusayama/Meyer, Custom pH
  3. Artificial Saliva DIN 53160-1:200, SN/T 1058.1-2013, GB/T 18886-2019 To Determine Colorfastness of Products Intended to be Taken into Mouth
  4. ISO 10271-2011 Artificial Saliva Corrosion Testing for Metallic Materialin Dental Devices
  5. AFNOR NF S91-141 Artificial Saliva For Testing Biodegradability of Dental Metal Alloys
  6. Artificial Saliva for Pharmaceutical Research
  7. Artificial Saliva for Medical and Dental Research
  8. Artificial Saliva ASTM E2720-16/ ASTM E2721-16 with Mucin
  9. a-Amylase


For more than 10 years, Pickering Laboratories has been supplying companies with artificial body fluids designed to test an array of materials, components and finished products. Our artificial urine solutions are formulated both according to official testing methods as well as published research on the use of artificial urine for corrosion test-ing, medical studies and related applications. The products do not come sterile but could be sterilized before customer use using filtration.

  1. Artificial Urine for Corrosion Testing of Urological Implants, Stabilized
  2. DIN EN 1616:1999 Artificial Urine for Testing Sterile Urethral Catheters
  3. Artificial Urine Medium for Growing Urological Pathogens
  4. Artificial Urine Stabilized


Cerumen, also known as ear wax, is a waxy substance secreted by ceruminous and sebaceous glands in the ear canal. It protects and lubricates the ear canal and assists in cleaning by trapping dirt and dead skin cells. Pickering Laboratories’ artificial cerumen product is similar in properties to the secretion itself and doesn’t contain keratin or other proteins.


Respiratory tract fluid is a complex, still not well-characterized mixture containing salts, locally secreted proteins, lipids, surfactants and other compounds. Respiratory fluid is also not homogeneous and has unique regional characteristics. The simplest simulated lung fluid, called Gamble’s solution, is a physiological salt solution that has been used to study drug dissolution as well as the solubility and bioavailability of toxic compounds found in inhaled particles.

  1. Simulated Lung Fluid
  2. Simulated Lung Fluid with Surfactant


This synthetic blood formulation is prepared according to official methods ASTM F1819-07, ASTM F1670, ASTM F1862 and ASTM F2100. It is intended for product testing and has the surface tension and viscosity close to human blood. Additionally, the color of the solution is intended to mimic the appearance of genuine human blood. The formulation can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of materials used in protective clothing. It can also be used to evaluate absorption capacity of materials that are in contact with human skin for prolonged periods. The formulation is not suitable for medical research. It can be stored at room temperature and has a shelf life of one year.

B. Next Generation HPLC Post-Column Derivatization Instrument Onyx PCX

  • All Onyx PCX components specifically designed for post-column derivatization
  • Programmable temperature gradient column oven for faster Amino Acids Analysis run times
  • Column oven is oriented for easy column switching and features improved tubing guards
  • Electronic pulse-free syringe pump provides greater sensitivity
  • Automatic piston washes and programmable system flush
  • Full-size removable reagent tray provides convenience and meets secondary containment requirements
  • Electronic valves have no expensive check valves to service and replace
  • Quick change reactor cartridges enable fast application switching and easy cartridge replacement
  • Inert flow path protects from metal contamination and extends system life while reducing maintenance
  • Color LCD display provides for continuous system monitoring and critical message alerts
  • All fluidics located on front panel for instant access and easy leak checks, drip tray included
  • Improved pump access for expedient maintenance
  • Integrated gas manifold allows for easy set-up and facilitates reagent preparation and preservation
  • Onyx PCX control software runs from Windows PC for easy operation and reagent conservation between runs
  • Software stores methods and sequences, allowing for flexible application setup and switching
  • Seamless application migration from Pinnacle PCX to Onyx PCX, including method transfers
  • Log files collect continuous data, from system status to error messages